Mama Wellness Wednesday – How to Take a Break Like You Mean It

mindful mama tip

Yah, yah, you’re thinking, every blog about moms says “relax“.

You’re right.  But here’s what I mean when I say “take a break”.  I’m not referring to: getting a massage, having tea with a friend or watching the sunset (though I highly recommend all those things) . I’m talking about taking a momentum break.

  • Trying desperately to feel “like yourself” and “get your body back” postpartum?
  • Trying desperately to get pregnant – in any way possible – and feeling on the verge of giving up/losing it/hiding somewhere?
  • Trying desperately to plan for an empowered birth when there are voices, tv shows, friends, parents, care providers, blogs and your own fears telling you it’s impossible and you’re not feeling that great anyway so who has the energy to plan something as grand as “empowering”?

Your Mama Wellness Tip this week: put it down.  Walk away.  With a time limit.

  • I will work on getting my body in my pre-pregnancy pants in exactly two weeks.
  • I will have sex to get pregnant in exactly two cycles.
  • I will write my birth plan in three days.

Why does the time limit matter?  It helps to relieve that boiling pressure that’s building with each moment you don’t see the fruition of your desires.  And it helps you to feel safe (you haven’t abandoned your goal forever, you’ve just put it down temporarily).

Ever notice how some couples get pregnant when they stop trying, even after years?  How some pregnancies seem to improve when we unplug from what everyone around us is telling us to do or try?  How some women “get their body back” (oh how I hate that phrase, but you know what I mean) without trying? It’s called letting go.

One study even found that women undergoing IVF cycles were more likely to get pregnant when they used “emotion-focused coping (EFC)”.  The authors found that “letting go is positively associated with risk of pregnancy”.


In the yoga world we us a word called prana.  This refers to the life force within you.  What keeps you alive, what makes your heart beat and your soul inspired.  When we run ourselves ragged chasing after something (especially something we may not have control over) we become prana deficient.  We increase prana by taking a break.  Breathing more (that’s why those breathing techniques are called pranayama), eating more whole foods, sleeping more.  Essentially, we restore. Taking a momentum break will help to restore prana (not to mention benefit relationships, help you see what your true desires are, and connect with God.)

Give it a try.  What do you have to lose?

mindful mama tip

Do you have your Abundant Mama Guided Fertility Meditation? Click here to get it free!



Holistic Postpartum Care – Mama Wellness Wednesday

holistic postpartum careDid you know your liver not only processes the physical things we ingest but also the emotional?
During pregnancy and postpartum your liver is working extra hard to process the additional estrogen and progesterone but also the extra emotions that are happening. This starts during conception as well if conception is an intentional journey for you.

Don’t forget to do an emotional house-cleaning when you cleanse this spring! Journal, practice slow moving yoga and notice your emotions, get rid of posessions you don’t need, set new boundaries in a relationship, make necessary changes to your schedule. Clean house emotionally mamas and be nice to your liver!

3 Secrets to Transform Your Pregnancy and Birth (and lose the overwhelm!)

Become a Blissful Mama…


I thought I was ready for birth (I wasn’t…and I was already a doula!)

I was 38 weeks in and pre-laboring off and on constantly. ” I’m ready!”, I thought, ” I’ve done yoga and breathing and have all the supplies!” What I didn’t realize was that I still hadn’t fully processed my previous birth story: my miscarriage. I woke up one morning and knew I needed to do something… so I drew it.  I cried for two hours straight, and just like that, the pre-labor stopped until I went into my final labor day!

Did you know…

Your health and lifestyle affects how you birth?  Your birth affects your future health and lifestyle?  And when I say “health” I don’t just mean eating organic!  I mean your total health: mentally, physically, emotionally, spiritually.

Pregnancy and Birth are not a “time out” from normal life.  They are part of a continuum.

Debra Pascali-Bonaro says “we birth like we live.”  What this means is that the habits and lifestyle you have during pregnancy affect your birth, but also every other area of your life.


One of my clients put it so well when she said: “Sandra’s Blissful Mama coaching includes a unique blend of spirituality, herbal remedies , and nutritional support which sets it apart from traditional birth classes. This support has made me feel more confident about giving birth and has helped me to make positive lifestyle changes through out my pregnancy. I highly recommend working with Sandra if you are looking for something more than the cut and dry typical birth class. The information from this class can be applied beyond your birth experience and through out your life!”

It’s not just about breathing…

There’s so much more for pregnancy, birth and motherhood.  Were you a bride who planned her wedding day but forgot to plan for the marriage?  Thinking birth preparation is as simple as checking off the birth plan and showing up is a bit like thinking getting ready for marriage is as simple as hiring a good caterer.

Good news…

I want to share with you Secrets to Transform Your Pregnancy and Birth (and how to do them!) so you can truly enjoy pregnancy, birth and postpartum!  (Oh, and how on earth to do them!)

Tuesday, January 1:0pm CST

Just enter your details below and you’ll be invited to this exclusive event (I’ve only got room for  5 amazing mamas) to join!

We respect your email privacy

Fiona, Mini-yogini

A day in the life of a Yoga Mama…..

A mini mommy and me yoga session

yoga mama mommy and me yoga

Happy Baby Pose with an actual happy baby (ananda balasana).

mommy and me yoga

Malasana (garland pose) while balancing w tiny wobbly person.

mommy and me yoga

Pause for boobie breakin supta bada konasana.

mommy and me yoga

Boobies and pigeon pose. Success. I wonder what other poses I can do while breastfeeding.

mommy and me yoga

Kisses in paschimottanasana.

mommy and me yoga

A little adjustment to my paschimottanasana from my bendi-baby yoga instructor.

mommy and me yoga

Baby bada konasana.

mommy and me yoga

Hmmmm…. she wonders ” I wonder if I can get back in there…”

mommy and me yoga

Mama and Fiona urdva mukha svanasana. (upward dog)

mommy and me yoga

One day she’ll practice next to me instead of on me.

R & R (Rest and Receive)

rest and receive mom meditation

This was the first time I felt helpless as a mom.  Fiona is 9 months old-ish and we’ve been super blessed with a more-than-we-could-have-asked for pregnancy and birth.  We’ve made a lot of conscious decisions to make my pregnancy and birth as low stress, un-interfered with as possible, and her first 9 months on the outside low-key, breastfed and worn in a wrap. So I’ve been a bit spoiled on the mom-front.  And I know it. 

 We decided to go home to Philadelphia for Christmas, like we always do.  I had this ominous feeling as we were packing our bags.  I don’t know why.  I usually get so excited to travel, excited for Christmas.  But my intuition was chafing at me. The day after we arrived Fiona started acting weird.  She threw up a few times, had a low grade fever, wouldn’t let anyone else hold her, was drooling and chewing, would sleep a lot and then not sleep at all.  She seemed to get better for a day and then get sick again.  I spent Christmas Eve candlelight service in my grandmother’s living room because, unlike her usual self, she was hysterical in the car ride.  The thing that put me over the edge was our drive to Christmas dinner, she developed a rash everywhere and threw up three times.  We immediately tried Pediatric Urgent Care, who apparently doesn’t take Blue Cross Blue Shield, and drove to the ER.

If you know anything about me, I may be the only person who chose to become a doula that really hates hospitals.  Don’t get me wrong, I appreciate nurses and doctors, I just hate the system.  The dingy cold linoleum, the hotel art, the flourescent lighting that might give me a brain cloud (Joe vs. the Volcano anyone?).  I hate that I have to tell 17 people the same story, and they all do one thing and then leave.  I hate that it takes 4 hours to do what should take 30 minutes.  I hate it.

So there we were.  And that’s when I started to cry.  I had a sinus infection and was exhausted.  Fiona clearly wasn’t well.  I had stupidly chosen to wear that beautiful Anthropologie dress that I practically have to take off to nurse her and high heels. It was all too much.  It’s one of those moments when you’re too tired to even ask God for help, you just sit there, cry and whisper in your heart “I just don’t know….”

So Bryan turned off the lights and shut the glass door, I sat back on the gurney with Fiona and covered her with my coat, her head on my heart.  And we started to quietly sing. It is well with my soul, Great is Thy Faithfulness, O Holy Night.  I don’t even remember, they just circulated and buzzed and poured out of us.  Quietly turning an ER room into a small place of worship.  “Doesn’t the atmosphere feel different already?” Bryan asked after a few minutes.  I nodded, tears still rolling, and we continued to sing.

Thankfully, Fiona is well.  They had no more insight into the situation than I had, and we’re home safe and sound.  We were talking about our vision for 2015 this week and decided that we would like to choose one theme passage of scripture for each month to meditate on as a family. When I was thinking about January, the word that the spirit kept speaking was rest.  “How?” I wanted to say.  “I’ll rest when my business meets my income goals.  I’ll rest when Fiona is well.  I’ll rest when this sinus infection is gone.  I’ll rest when we’re home.  I’ll rest when the holidays are over.   I’ll rest when….”

And he said, “Now.”

And gave me this passage.  It landed on my head last night like a giant piece of New Year’s confetti.  (The bold and italics are mine):

“When the Promises Are Mixed with Faith
For as long, then, as that promise of resting in him pulls us on to God’s goal for us, we need to be careful that we’re not disqualified. We received the same promises as those people in the wilderness, but the promises didn’t do them a bit of good because they didn’t receive the promises with faith. If we believe, though, we’ll experience that state of resting. But not if we don’t have faith…
God keeps renewing the promise and setting the date as todayAnd so this is still a live promise.
It wasn’t canceled at the time of Joshua; otherwise, God wouldn’t keep renewing the appointment for “today.” The promise of “arrival” and “rest” is still there for God’s people. God himself is at rest. And at the end of the journey we’ll surely rest with God. So let’s keep at it and eventually arrive at the place of rest, not drop out through some sort of disobedience. God means what he says. What he says goes. ” ~Hebrews 4
This is our January meditation, to focus on the peace and rest.  What kind of year will we have if we rely on our own abilities to do things? If we confuse the power of the spirit with our own power?  Instead, I want to receive the promises with faith.  And let God take care of the rest.
“In vain you rise early and stay up late, toiling for food to eat– for he grants sleep to those he loves.” ~Psalm 127:2

Christmas Tree Pose – Holiday-asana

tree pose prenatal yoga christmas yoga

What we can learn from tree pose this time of year.

My friend sent me a blog post today about balance during the holidays.  It’s the first one I read that I agree with, because most are fluff.  We women have a tendency to add to our lists incessantly. (I’m guilty! I published a blog post that was an actual list!)  As soon as I cross something off, two more things take its place. During the Holidays we tend to lose our mind with busyness.  My mother used to keep lists of things to do on envelopes from bills that needed paying.  Most of the “to-dos” were actually “to-buys”, ironically.

We add an extra layer to the pile of mommy guilt we so love to carry around like a santa-claus bag to prove that, though we might be flawed it’s really just because we’re so so busy being amazing moms. As if to say “Who could perfect with this many things to do?!”  Somehow it’s harder to swallow our mistakes and failures when we have time to sit and read a book, stare out a window and think or enjoy some quiet time with our spouse.

Balance is really a euphemism…

But balance does not need to be one of those things on your to-do list.  Get presents, check.  Make pies, check.  Stay balanced and happy dammit!…check.

“Balanced” has somehow become a euphemism for “do more and look happy while doing it.”  If I could insert the sound of a loud buzzer right here, I would. FALSE!  Don’t buy it!  Put that thought down and walk away.  Balance is a dynamic state of being.  Trees stay balanced because they bend and then they compensate.  We stay balanced when we make it to Christmas parties but plan a day for rest.  We stay balanced when we take advantage of a kid’s longer than usual nap.  We also stay balanced when we spend a crazy amount of energy and time getting them to see Santa, just because we like that tradition.

The key is to consciously choose what you want and need to spend time on, and then do it.  If I want to exhaust myself making an obscene amount of Thanksgiving food and spend all of Friday watching Netflix movies, I’m ok with that. I invite you to join me over here in balance land, where we sometimes get a little nuts and then compensate with a long nap and a large glass of Malbec; where we often make enormous mistakes and have to tearfully apologize and let God come in and heal a wound.

Try out tree pose, to help you embody this principle.

tree pose prenatal yoga christmas yoga

Stand with your feet together, grounded, rooted.  Feel that grounding sensation.  Can you imagine roots growing downward from the soles of your feet?  Bring your hands to your hips to feel stable, bring your weight into your left foot and free up the right knee to the side, in line with your hip.  Bringing your right heel to rest on your left leg- anywhere is good, just not your knee directly.

Find a point to gaze (called a drishti), and breathe.

Maybe bring your hands to anjali mudra (prayer) at your heart and bow in silence.  Maybe extend your hands up wildly reaching in the opposite direction of your feet.

Allow yourself to bend in either direction.



Mama Mindfulness – Pregnancy and Holidays

pregnancy holidays low stress pregnancy

6 Holiday Tips for Mama Mindfulness

Pregnancy and holidays can be so overwhelming.  Here are some of the ideas I used to remain steady and blissful during last Christmas while I was preggo myself!  Any mama can use these, pregnant or not!

1.  Natural bubbles.

pregnancy holidays tips

Adding in some homemade (or even high quality store bought) ferments can help balance blood sugar (after all that pie!), soothe nerves and aid in digestion.  Try a little kombucha each day, water or milk kefir, maybe even a little sauerkraut on toast or mixed into rice or other grain for a little zestiness.

2. Herbal Relief

skullcap pregnancy pregnancy holidays

Feeling a little insomnia from the extra sugar, kids with extra sugar, or just all the family-togetherness?  Try a 30 drops of skullcap or valerian root tincture in water before bedtime, or a few times a day to soothe nerves.

3. Pranayama

pregnancy holidays

Practice 5 minutes of belly breaths a few times during the day, even if its just during a potty break!  Sit still, expand your belly, creating space for your womb on the inhale and as you exhale soften your belly back towards your spine emptying of breath. If you have a toddler or older, you can teach this to them and practice “being mindful” together.  Teach them about what being still is about, how to listen to their bodies.  Sometimes when we teach something to someone else we really start to integrate it ourselves.

4. Joy Notes

Sing a song.  Singing has been shown to reduce stress and lower cortisol.  Get the kids to join in, or sing alone in the car or shower.  Whatever kind of song you can sing comfortably and happily.  We like to make up some silly ones every day.  Maybe a Christmas song, or a chant that can help you meditate on something positive.  Avoid the angry anthems right now and choose uplifting songs.  If you already have littles, ask them to help you make up a song.

5.  Heart opening moves

pregnancy holidays ustrasana

If you need some extra energy, try doing some gentle backbends.  Camel pose/ustrasana, or even just a seated backbend will do.  Sit in a gentle cross legged position.  Place your hands behind you with your fingers forward.  Press into your palms, lift your heart and your gaze.  Breath!  Feel the grounding energy of your hips and sitz bones and the lifting energy in your chest and top of your spine!

6. Mala Meditation

mama mala meditation pregnancy holidays

Choose a scripture, word or phrase that speaks to your heart right now and meditate on it.  Use something physical to remind you of this phrase, and use the same verse for several days, a week, or even the whole holiday season.  A mala necklace or bracelet (like this one I want for Christmas) can help.  Write down the verse on a post it or set it as an alarm on your phone.  This way, when you are remined of the verse or word, you can pause, take a deep breath, and think only on this one thing.

“Finally, brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable–if anything is excellent or praiseworthy–think about such things. ~Phillipians 4:8”

Some suggestions might be:

-The Word Joy

-What Mary felt when Jesus arrived

-The word Peace

-Romans 12:11-13 (MSG)

– Psalm 94:12-15 (MSG)



Be well mamas!

The Most Important Pregnancy Questions

free prenatal meditation

When I lost my first pregnancy, a small, star shaped space in my center was created.  It will always be there.  I cherish it in fact.  I called myself “mother” from then on, because I had birthed an angel baby and brought forth that teeny tiny body in piles of tissue with just as much fear, faith and hope as any mother has.  Bryan and I spent a season of life mourning, growing, learning.  We were newlyweds, we weren’t sure which foot to stand on, which part of our spouse that we had seen so far was the one that we would spend the most time with.  But time passed, our wounds healed and my womb healed, even with that tiny star tattoo for Baby Maurer; and we chose to try to conceive again.  (How magical is it that we get some agency in the process of creating human life??)

I was pregnant with Fiona Lynn and as overjoyed as I was overwhelmed that we were moving from our friends and family and my doula and yoga practice in Virginia to no one, in nowhere, Minnesota.   We moved, rooted, acclimated and the pregnancy continued, Fiona grew right next to that little star scar.  But towards the end of my pregnancy I began to feel something nagging at me.  I talked, and talked with my poor midwife whose visits were closer to 3 hours more often than not.   I shopped. I prayed.  And one morning, way too early (as it often is when the spirit chooses to stir something)  I woke up with the sense that I had not fully let go of this miscarriage.  Knowing what I know about birth and labor, and I did not want this to stall or interfere with in any way Fiona’s birth.

So I made some tea, and sat down to draw.  No sooner had I sketched two drawings – one of my birth and one of my miscarriage, that I just weeped.  Weeped and weeped. And then I felt better.  Relief.  Sigh.  That lift of your heart that feels as though you could suddenly do something you never considered possible, a face to face encounter with the truth that all will be well.  I felt connected to my heritage as a woman : both the actual women in my bloodline and all the women that had birthed before me.  I felt ready for motherhood on a level I didn’t know I needed to reach.

So when Morgan Moon (co author of the Blissful Mama eCourse) and I were chatting recently about the Blissful Mama retreat, the question of speakers came up.  We were considering finding and inviting speakers to teach mamas-to-be from their wise women wisdom.  But this story of mine floated right up to the front of my vision for these retreats and Morgan agreed – the retreats are about looking inward into the spirit and heart of each mama, not to the external teaching of experts.  There’s another time and place for that.

It seems women are on information overload these days, babycenter, google,  While it’s true that I often provide the navigation tools through all that information for mamas,  so many times mothers aren’t really searching for more information, they’re searching for their intuition. We all need support recognizing the voice of God in our lives, and learning to trust our embodied wisdom. This is the area of motherhood that isn’t being addressed by care providers. (And maybe that’s ok.)  But it does need to be addressed.  I don’t know what would have happened had I not spent that reflective time before birth with my drawings.  Perhaps things would have gone the same, we’ll never know.  There are times though, with a mother in labor (or if I’m lucky, beforehand) something reveals itself that blocks a smooth passage to motherhood.  One of my clients was obsessively shopping and feeling restless before her delivery, until she completed a drawing task (reluctantly!) and found that she was feeling incredibly afraid of giving birth without her grandmother (who had passed away and been her mother figure).  We were able to talk about it, and find ways to heal that space so she felt totally ready to birth and move forward. Other times merely asking mamas how they feel about their bodies and having them list some adjectives has caused revelation!  These are our most important pregnancy questions. This is why we say “mothers are born” when babies are born, because becoming a mother is a change in psyche, a shift of perception of ourselves and the world around us.

So I offer myself as a guide, to help each mother I work with discover any of these roadblocks towards what she sees in her vision of birth, to unravel and create new belief systems around pregnancy and motherhood so she is free to find her fullest potential.  Psychological, spiritual and physical health are not as separate as we like to think, though we see different specialists to address these things separately most of the time.  It’s time we begin the important work of re-marrying these things in our understanding of health so we can create true wellness – for ourselves and for our children.

Ready for this kind of journey yourself? Schedule your Blissful Mama Breakthrough Session now.

Honoring the Mama! Join us for free!

Are you struggling with feeling like pregnancy just isn’t as joyful as you’d hoped?  Are you trying to find the feeling that you are on a sacred journey, but mostly you feel overwhelmed, in need of connection or community or maybe there’s just something missing you’d hoped would be there?  

I would love to sit in a virtual circle with you and hear from YOU.  Where are you in your journey?  What would you need to feel more honored, to feel that this pregnancy is a sacred journey?  What would it take for you for pregnancy to feel like a warrior princess mission and not a necessary evil?  

I’ll share Five  of my favorite ways I’ve discovered to feel more nourished in pregnancy so you can unleash your joyful and creative Mama Spirit!

You will definitely leave this call feeling refreshed and equipped to find your own unique Mama Spirit! You will feel ready to explore deeper into your hearts desire for this pregnancy and birth, surrounded and supported by like-minded mamas-to-be.  

If that sounds like just the thing for your heart right now, sign up and join us.
    February 5th, 5:30 pm CST
    You will get the link to listen in your email!
    Here is a sneak peak at what you will learn on this call:
    • Find out what one thing could be blocking you from unleashing your creative Mama Spirit.
    • How to feel nourished and cherished without feeling guilty!
    • How to use your pregnancy as a time to do more than just wait for baby.
    • *BONUS: FREE Guided Prenatal Meditation for Relaxation!
    Here’s what you can expect…
    • Set aside an hour or so just for you.
    • Listen to other mamas share their concerns and get some inspiration. Feel free to share your journey as well. 
    • The second part will be the content of the seminar.

    Who I am…
    My name is Sandra Maurer and I too have had to struggle with pregnancy challenges and fears, beliefs and feelings about myself and my body that didn’t serve me, and finding the right support and information to move through those to healing and celebration. My deepest desire is to help other mamas find their own unique path to motherhood empowered, supported and inspired. 
    I invite you to join me for a night of exploring the significance, beauty and pleasure in pregnancy and motherhood.

    We will sit in a (virtual!) circle together and hold the space for one another to share where we are at with the experience (what’s working, what’s not and what you’d like to feel or experience more of)! You will leave with plenty of ideas to create a more nurturing experience in pregnancy, birth and postpartum!

    Simply put your name and e-mail in the opt in box at the top right hand corner of the page to get access to the call now!

    The Power of Generations, What My Mother Has Given Me

    Now that I’m a mama, I find myself feeling connected to my mother (and my grandmother, and great grandmother in a new way. I went home this Christmas to visit my family.  We stayed with my mom and her husband – they are two peas in a pod and so much fun.  My mom also threw my a mother blessing/shower that left me feeling truly blessed and loved. 

    Now that we’re back home, and really getting ready for this little one to arrive (I’m just about 30 weeks now), the nesting urges is strong and the feeling of being connected to all the mothers before me, but especially those in my own family is powerful. 

    My mom is a silly, hyper, fast-paced woman.  She works as an executive, she loves high heels, she lives in a high rise apartment in Philadelphia and eats out for most meals.  She was never the kind of mom to make homemade chicken soup (which is funny, because somehow that is the kind of mom I’ve become), but she has her own unique way of loving and mothering and so much of what she does and who she is I’d like to pass on to my daughter.  

    Some of the things I have learned from my mother that are invaluable: 
    She has always loved Jesus and trusted him completely.  She sang “Trust and Obey” to me as a little girl to sleep and I have found myself spontaneously singing this to my little Fiona without realizing it.  

    She has an undeniable magnetism.  People love her. In fact, it’s what makes her so good at her job, but also such an inspiring person to be around.  

       She has an undefeatable spirit. She does not understand nor acknowledge the phrase “I give up”, and most of all she has never given up hope. Not once.  Despite the years of being married to my father that must have been dark and lonely as she tried to raise me and my sister.  

    I understand now, in my thirties, how self-sacrificing she truly is, and has had to be, in order to make life work as a single mom.  I will always wish I had thanked her more as a teenager, when I spent most of my time being depressed, angry and self-righteous. 

    My mother is famous for her loud and uncontrollable laughter.  She thinks almost anything is funny, even jokes at her own expense.  I have never met a woman with the ability to laugh at life and at herself like my mother can.  It is a trait I may love most about her, I never spend more than 5 minutes talking to my mom without bursting into laughter about something.  When she and I were in my sister’s labor room 3 years ago for the birth of my niece, the three of us spent most of the time in giggles.  So much so that the nurses didn’t believe my sister was as close to delivery as she was.  

    My mother has a generous spirit.  If you need it and she has it- it’s yours. Especially when it comes to family.  She has taught me the strength in being a generous person.  She has lived a life that proves the more you give the more you have.  There was never a time, even when we had almost nothing, that she wasn’t tithing, and wasn’t willing to give whatever she had.  When my dad was in jail for several years in high school after their divorce, I remember being a part of a program through our church called Angel Tree that delivered Christmas gifts to children with incarcerated parents.  She has never focused on what we didn’t have, she has always focused on our overwhelming blessings.  As a result, I am able to more clearly see what God is doing in and through my life all the time, not what seems to be missing.

    Her heart reveals Jesus to me more and more each year.  She is always willing to change, always willing to admit mistakes, and always humble enough to repent and brave enough to move on.  I know that her prayers and the prayers of the women before her – her mother, and her mother’s mother – are blessing my daughter even before her birth and are helping me to be the mother that God has created me to be. 

    If I can pass on even just a few of these traits to my daughter as well, I feel that I have done my job as a mother.  

    What gifts did your mother give you?  What do you hope to pass on, to inherit, to share?

    1 2 3